TRAINING OBJECTIVES: This course is intended to provide a basic knowledge of liquid penetrant inspection sufficient to enable the graduate to carry out liquid penetrant inspection in accordance with established procedures under the supervision of Level 2 or Level 3 personnel. The practical work incorporated in the program will help the participant to develop self-confidence in processing components following written instructions and to be knowledgeable in the terminology associated with liquid penetrant inspection.

APPLICABLE STANDARDS: This program meets the requirements of SNT-TC-1A, BINDT/PCN, CAN/CGSB-48.9712 and ISO-9712.

DEFINITION OF LEVEL 2 PERSONNEL: Level 2 personnel are defined as personnel who will perform and/or direct Liquid Penetrant Testing according to established or recognized procedures and shall be responsible for the liquid penetrant method or technique to be used, and for the interpretation of the test results.


  1. Introduction
    • Brief outline of the roles of: NDE Institute of Trinidad & Canadian Institute for NDE; Canadian General Standards Board; Department of Natural Resources Canada; SNT-TC-1A
    • The role and definition of nondestructive examination
    • Brief history of liquid penetrant inspection


  1. Basic Principles of Liquid Penetrant Inspection
    • Why penetrant testing is used and works
    • What penetrant testing is used on and reveals


  1. Basic Steps of Liquid Penetrant Processing
    • Part preparation
    • Application of penetrant
    • Removal of excess penetrant
    • Application of developer
    • Inspection
    • Post-cleaning


  1. Types of Penetrants in Current Use
    • Commonly used penetrant materials
    • Some of the "special" penetrant materials
    • Packaging of penetrant materials
    • Precautions regarding penetrant materials
    • Physical properties of penetrants
    • Advantages and disadvantages of each penetrant process
    • Physical properties of penetrant materials
    • Safety precautions involved with different materials and applications
    • Inspection environments: requirements for fluorescent inspection, requirements for colour contrast inspection, requirements for dual mode inspection
  1. Steps to Follow When Using Different Processes
    • Water washable fluorescent penetrants
    • Water washable visible penetrants
    • Post-emulsifiable fluorescent penetrants
    • Post-emulsifiable visible penetrants
    • Solvent removable fluorescent penetrants
    • Solvent removable visible penetrants
    • Dual system penetrants


  1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Processes
    • From the viewpoint of time, cost and the inspector


  1. Inspection, Interpretation and Evaluation
    • Defined
    • Responsibilities involved with each
    • Use of codes and standards
    • Interpretation of indications
    • Report writing and documentation


  1. System Controls
    • Equipment; penetrants; emulsifiers; developers; cleaners


  1. Liquid Penetrant Test Equipment and Accessories
    • Portable, stationary units and set-up
    • Black light and the electro-magnetic spectrum
    • "Housekeeping" requirements
    • Pressure and temperature controls
    • Performance checks and requirements
    • Specialized penetrant equipment and chemicals
    • Choice of method and technique development


  1. Inspection Procedures and Standards
    • Following written procedures
    • Recognizing and following standards
    • Record keeping and general documentation procedures


  1. Engineering Materials and Components
    • Discontinuities and defects: classification of discontinuities
    • Castings
    • Millwork and Forging
    • Service


NOTE: Safety shoes are mandatory for all laboratory work.


Minimum class size: 6
Maximum enrolment: 12



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Five days (40 hours)